- Date: circa 1570
- 1 : to cause to continue or increase by sexual or asexual reproduction
- 2 : to pass along to offspring
- 3 a : to cause to spread out and affect a greater number or greater area : extend
- b : to foster growing knowledge of, familiarity with, or acceptance of (as an idea or belief) : publicize
- c : to transmit (as sound or light) through a medium
- Sexual propagation (seed)
Seeds and spores can be used for reproduction (through e.g. sowing). Seeds are typically produced from sexual reproduction within a species, since because genetic recombination has occurred plants grown from seeds may have different characteristics to its parents. Some species produce seeds that require special conditions to germinate, such as cold treatment. The seeds of many Australian plants and plants from southern Africa and the American west require smoke or fire to germinate. Some plant species, including many trees do not produce seeds until they reach maturity, which may take many years. Seeds can be difficult to acquire and some plants do not produce seed at all.
- Asexual propagation
Plants have a number of mechanisms for asexual or vegetative reproduction. Some of these have been taken advantage of by horticulturists and gardeners to multiply or clone plants rapidly. People also use methods that plants do not use, such as tissue culture and grafting. Plants are produced using material from a single parent and as such there is no exchange of genetic material, therefore vegetative propagation methods almost always produce plants that are identical to the parent. Vegetative reproduction uses vegetative plants parts or roots, stems and leaves. Therefore, propagation via asexual seeds or apomixis is asexual reproduction but not vegetative propagation.