A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively short period of time. Aristotle described two types of political revolution:
- the action by a celestial body of going round in an orbit or elliptical course
- the time taken by a celestial body to make a complete round in its orbit
- the rotation of a celestial body on its axis
- Complete change from one constitution to another
- Modification of an existing constitution.
Revolutions have occurred through human history and vary widely in terms of methods, duration, and motivating ideology. Their results include major changes in culture, economy, and socio-political institutions.
Scholarly debates about what does and does not constitute a revolution center around several issues. Early studies of revolutions primarily analyzed events in European history from a psychological perspective, but more modern examinations include global events and incorporate perspectives from several social sciences, including sociology and political science. Several generations of scholarly thought on revolutions have generated many competing theories and contributed much to the current understanding of this complex phenomenon.
^ Aristotle, The Politics V, tr. T.A. Sinclair (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1964, 1972), p. 190.
- The International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest: 1500 to the Present, ed. by Immanuel Ness, Malden, MA [etc.]: Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 1405184647
- Perreau-Sausine, Emile, Les libéraux face aux révolutions : 1688, 1789, 1917, 1933, Commentaire, Spring 2005, pp. 181-193
- Hannah Arendt, On Revolution, 1963, Penguin Classics, New Ed edition: February 8, 1991. ISBN 014018421X
- Revolution in Political Risk Management
- John Kekes, Why Robespierre Chose Terror. The lessons of the first totalitarian revolution, City Journal, Spring 2006.
- Plinio Correa de Oliveira, Revolution and Counter-Revolution, Foundation for a Christian, Third edition, 1993. ISBN 1877905275
- Michael Barken, Regulating revolutions in Eastern Europe: Polyarchy and the National Endowment for Democracy, 1 November 2006.
- Polyarchy Documents: Revolution
- Vive la Révolution!: Revolution is an Indelible Phenomenon Throughout History by Qasim Hussaini